[China Agricultural Machinery Industry News] In 20 16 years, Premier Li Keqiang wrote the "artisan spirit" into the "Government Work Report", which means that the "artisan spirit" focused on its own field, excellence and pursuit has become an era call.
Advance with the times, the "artisan spirit" of agricultural machinery can not be lost
At the moment, China is transforming from a "agricultural power" to a "agricultural power". The word difference is long. At this time, the "artisan spirit" is just like a rain, a spring thunder, just the right time, awakening the agricultural machinery in the middle. "Artisans" - the intelligentization of agricultural machinery manufacturing is imminent; the new professional peasants who are truly in the front line and guard the Chinese people's "rice bowl" carry the responsibility of the times.
At the Sino-German Agricultural Mechanization Development Forum held on April 25th, the "cultivation of agricultural machinery craftsmen" as an important unit of the forum has received great attention from both sides. "The three-person line must have my teacher and choose the good ones from it." Germany is world-famous as a "world artisan". What kind of reference to the cultivation of "agricultural craftsmen" to China? How will China cultivate a big agricultural country? Agricultural machinery craftsman?
China's "agricultural craftsman" training "in progress"
Ji Shaoqin (Director, Education Division, Science and Technology Education Department, Ministry of Agriculture)
Why did China propose to train new professional farmers at this time?
The new type of professional peasant is different from the "traditional old peasant". It refers to the modern agricultural practitioner who uses agriculture as a stable occupation, has certain cultural qualities and high professional skills, and whose income mainly comes from agricultural production and management and reaches a certain level. The "agricultural craftsman" we are talking about today, more specifically, is a professional service-oriented professional farmer.
At present, China is accelerating its development from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, and the structure of rural labor has changed. According to statistical analysis, since 2010, the number of migrant workers in China has been accelerating. By 2013, there has been a â€œturning pointâ€. Farmers who go out to work are more than farmers who have stayed in rural areas, and 270 million migrant workers have left behind. 250 million; by 2015, peasants who went out to work accounted for 274 million, leaving only about 240 million.
"After the 70s (under 45 years old), I don't want to plant land. After 80s (under 35 years old), I don't want to plant land. After 90s (under 25 years old), I don't talk about farming." The rural new labor force has a strong willingness to leave agriculture, and there is no shortage of agricultural people. The problem is pressing step by step. Under this circumstance, the central government began to pay attention to it in 2012 and first mentioned in the â€œNo. 1 Documentâ€: China should vigorously cultivate new professional farmers.
How to build a training system for new Chinese professional farmers?
Cultivate the object "three types of synergy." The existing farmers are divided into production and management, professional skills, and professional services. The production and management types are mainly the breeding of large households, farmers and the backbone of cooperatives.
Cultivate the link "three in one." From the past "training" to "cultivation", one is education and training to improve production skills and personnel quality; the second is to identify and manage, to standardize the management of professional farmers as a team; the third is policy support, to strengthen farmers The policy of farming and peasant farming is inclined to new professional farmers.
The certificate level is three levels. China's new professional farmer certificate is also a scope of encouragement policy, which is divided into primary and secondary, and it is necessary to comprehensively determine and manage its cultural quality, skill level, scale of operation, and level of operation. In the future, we will learn from the experience of developed countries and manage them according to the standards of access. Shanghai has begun to use the certificate of a professional farmer as a condition for accepting an entry for a contracted family farm.
How does China cultivate "agricultural machinery craftsmen"?
China has vigorously implemented the new professional peasant cultivation project and explored four models to cultivate "agricultural machinery craftsmen". Since 2012, it has been piloted by the Ministry of Agriculture. In 2014, it was fully implemented nationwide. The central government invested 1.1 billion yuan in special funds. Local governments and provincial finances still have about 500 million yuan for the cultivation of new professional farmers. Training 1 million people.
Demonstration and promotion. We have focused on exploring the cultivation system of new professional farmers in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Shandong and 21 cities and 500 counties.
Implement a youth farmer training program. This year, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League and the Ministry of Education jointly launched a training program for young farmers in China, selecting 10,000 large professional households aged 18-45, entrepreneurs returning to their hometowns, and migrant workers, focusing on nurturing and incubating them to support their entrepreneurship. We took the form of online registration. After the notice was issued last year, 17,000 people applied online. We selected 12,000 people from China to train for three years of training.
Innovative methods of cultivation. Objects: In the past, Chinese farmers were scattered, and the object discrimination and discrimination were not high. Now we are focusing on cultivating large professional households, family farmers, and cooperative leaders. The management is more elaborate. We adopt information management methods and explore local conditions. Adapt to the cultivation mode of adult learning and production rules; vigorously promote rural rural schools, local training, theory and practice; establish a smart cloud platform, and actively explore the construction of online education and mobile of professional farmers based on mobile internet, cloud computing, big data Internet service.
Summarize and promote advanced models. In the country, the promotion model of the ten new professional farmers was released for the selection of localities in the cultivation process.
The new pattern of agricultural mechanization education has taken shape
Liu Yunze (Director, Department of Science and Education, Agricultural Mechanization Management Department, Ministry of Agriculture)
At present, China's agricultural machinery talent team training has initially formed agricultural machinery education (high school secondary vocational colleges, tractor driving training institutions), agricultural machinery promotion, agricultural machinery supervision, agricultural machinery vocational skills appraisal institutions, as well as agricultural machinery research institutes and enterprises, agricultural machinery service organizations, etc. A new pattern of extensive participation in education and training. The training focuses on various types of training institutions can be divided into five categories: First, the vocational colleges and universities managed by the local education system carry out systematic academic education. The second is the agricultural mechanization school managed by the Ministry of Agricultural Mechanization, which conducts short-term practical technical and vocational skills training. The third is the grassroots agricultural machinery promotion organization managed by the agricultural mechanization management department, which implements short-term training and guidance. The fourth is the voluntary training application of the main body, and the tractor training institution established after examination and approval has specially trained the agricultural driver to obtain the driver's license. The fifth is the joint government and enterprise, the joint school and enterprise, and the cooperative and enterprise.
As of the end of 2014, there were 36 national agricultural mechanization colleges and universities, one in each province. There are more than 1,700 agricultural machinery schools, basically one in each agricultural county. There are more than 7,000 grassroots agricultural mechanization technology promotion institutions (including county and township level) established by the state. There are 2,000 agricultural machinery enterprises above designated size, all of which are carrying out maintenance training such as different degrees of agricultural machinery operation and use.
The main targets of agricultural mechanization education and training are high school graduates who pass the college entrance examination and intend to engage in practical maintenance of agricultural machinery production. Second, the college entrance examinations are at the top of the list, and agricultural machinery management personnel engaged in agricultural production at home, including family farmers, large agricultural machinery, and cooperative directors. The backbone of the machine; the third is the repairman of the agricultural machinery maintenance network, the farmers who newly purchased the agricultural machinery, and the teachers who are engaged in agricultural machinery operation skills training and evaluation.
The main training content is the basic knowledge and skills of agricultural machinery operation, ensuring that farmers can use the tools correctly, improve the efficiency of the use of machinery, and ensure safe production.
Over the years, China has explored and summarized some effective agricultural training methods: First, centralized training, such as training institutions to obtain driving licenses and vocational training certificates. The second is on-site demonstration training, on-site technical demonstration and new equipment promotion through different forms. The third is to send seeds to the countryside. In many areas, training courses are held in rural courtyards and fields. The fourth is the market-oriented training of enterprises, focusing on the after-sales service training of enterprises. In the areas with large sales volume, some trainings on operation and maintenance of new farmers are carried out. The fifth is multi-party joint training, including government-enterprise linkage, city-enterprise marriage, and school-office union.
In order to alleviate farmers' training costs, mobilize enthusiasm, and improve the quality of farmers, the state has introduced some policies to subsidize farmers' participation in training, and some provinces have set up special financial award funds to carry out junior, intermediate, and certificate personnel. Fund rewards. Every year, governments at all levels arrange special funds to support relevant institutions and carry out practical technical training for agricultural machinery.
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